How to safeguard our data integrity?

Page #44 of Chapter: Crypto-for-the-rest-of-us

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Data Integrity is comprised of (i) preventing message and data alteration, (ii) rejecting faked messages and data, and (iii) guarding against distortion of the meaning of data.

The basic idea is to package the original message or data in such a complex fashion that the adversary will not be able to alter it such that the unraveled message or data (the plaintext) will amount to an altered message or data to serve the adversary's interest. And performing that packaging with a help of a discriminating key so that the adversary will not be able to fake it. Guarding against distortion of meaning is a delicate creative battlefield where data sequence, combinations of seemingly benign information effects such a distortion.

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